Tribal governments, as expressed by the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), are important and unique members of the family of American governments. They provide multiple programs and services, including energy, education, workforce development, and emergency management. And all 574 sovereign tribal nations (i.e., tribes, nations, bands, pueblos, communities, and native villages) often do so with limited funds and resources, especially before, during, or after critical events, such as natural disasters.  

Recognizing these long-standing issues and responding to the need for reform (especially regarding disaster declarations), FEMA tribal affairs recently consulted with 135 representatives of 78 tribal nations. In total, there were 14 virtual feedback sessions with tribal representation from